Skip to content
Author: Tianle Yuan

Inheritance⚓︎

Basic Inheritance⚓︎

For?

Inherit Attributes and Methods from Base class (parent) to Derived class (child).

Grammar?

Use the : symbol.

Let's do it!

Problem: Let the Car class (child) inherits the Attributes and Methods from the Vehicle class (parent):

inher_base.c++
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <assert.h> 
using namespace std;

//Base class
class Vehicle{
    public:
        Vehicle(){}
        ~Vehicle(){}
    public:
        string m_brand = "Ford";
    public:
        string Honk(){
            return "Tu, tu! \n";
        }
};

//Derived class
class Car: public Vehicle{
    public:
        string m_model = "Tesla";
};

int main(){
    Car newCar;
    assert (newCar.Honk() == "Tu, tu! \n");
    assert (newCar.m_brand == "Ford"); //cout << newCar.brand   << endl;
    assert (newCar.m_model == "Tesla"); //cout << newCar.   model << endl;
}

Multiple Inheritance⚓︎

Let's do it!

Problem: Let the Son class (child) inherits the Attributes and Methods from both the Mom and Dad class (parents):

inher_multi_.c++
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <assert.h> 
using namespace std;

//Base class
class Mom{
    public:
        int m_age = 32;
    public:
        string Speak(){
            return "Mom is me!";
        }
};

class Dad{
    public:
        int m_age = 44;
    public:
        string Say(){
            return "Dad is me!";
        }
};

//Derived class
class Son: public Mom, public Dad{
    public:
        int m_age = 5;
    public:
        string Say(){
            return "I am son!";
        }
};

int main(){
    Son ason;
    assert (ason.Speak() == "Mom is me!");
    assert (ason.Say() == "I am son!"); 
    assert (ason.m_age == 5);
}

Inheritance Access⚓︎

What is access specifiers for methods?

Access specifiers define how the members (attributes and methods) of a class can be accessed.

There are three access specifiers: public, private, protected.

  • public: members are accessible from outside the class.

  • private: members cannot be accessed (or viewed) from outside the class (but is accessable with in the class).

  • protected: members cannot be accessed from outside the class. However, they can be accessed in inherited classes.

Let's do it!

Problem: Let the Programmer class (child) inherits the Attributes and Methods from both the Employee class (parents) in a safe way:

inher_access.c++
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <assert.h> 
using namespace std;

//Base class
class Employee{
    protected:
        int m_salary = 32;
};

//Derived class
class Programmer: public Employee{
    public:
        int m_bonus = 44;
    public:
        void setSalary(int s){
            m_salary = s;
        }
        int getSalary(){
            return m_salary;
        }
};

int main(){
    Programmer Mark;
    Mark.setSalary(50000);
    assert (Mark.getSalary() == 50000);

    Mark.m_salary = 90000;     //error: ‘int Employee::m_salary’ is protected within this context
}

Public, Private, and Protected Inheritances⚓︎

What is access specifiers for inheritances?
  • public inheritances: Basic class's public and protected members remain the original status in the derived class.

  • private inheritances: Basic class's public and protected members become private in the derived class.

  • protected inheritances: Basic class's public and protected members become protected in the derived class.

  • Note: private members of the base class are inaccessible to the derived class.

Let's do it!

Problem: illustrate all the inheritances method:

inher_allway.c++
class Base {
  public:
    int x;
  protected:
    int y;
  private:
    int z;
};

class PublicDerived: public Base {
  // x is public
  // y is protected
  // z is not accessible from PublicDerived
};

class ProtectedDerived: protected Base {
  // x is protected
  // y is protected
  // z is not accessible from ProtectedDerived
};

class PrivateDerived: private Base {
  // x is private
  // y is private
  // z is not accessible from PrivateDerived
};
Let's do it!

Problem 1: C++ public Inheritance:

inher_pub_inher.c++
// C++ program to demonstrate the working of public inheritance

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Base {
  private:
    int pvt = 1;

  protected:
    int prot = 2;

  public:
    int pub = 3;

    // function to access private member
    int getPVT() {
      return pvt;
    }
};

class PublicDerived : public Base {
  public:
    // function to access protected member from Base
    int getProt() {
      return prot;
    }
};

int main() {
  PublicDerived object1;
  cout << "Private = " << object1.getPVT() << endl;
  cout << "Protected = " << object1.getProt() << endl;
  cout << "Public = " << object1.pub << endl;
  return 0;
}
output
Private = 1
Protected = 2
Public = 3

Let's do it!

Problem 2: C++ protected Inheritance:

inher_pro_inher.c++
// C++ program to demonstrate the working of protected inheritance

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Base {
  private:
    int pvt = 1;

  protected:
    int prot = 2;

   public:
    int pub = 3;

    // function to access private member
    int getPVT() {
      return pvt;
    }
};

class ProtectedDerived : protected Base {
  public:
    // function to access protected member from Base
    int getProt() {
      return prot;
    }

    // function to access public member from Base
    int getPub() {
      return pub;
    }
};

int main() {
  ProtectedDerived object1;
  cout << "Private cannot be accessed." << endl;
  cout << "Protected = " << object1.getProt() << endl;
  cout << "Public = " << object1.getPub() << endl;
  return 0;
}
output
Private cannot be accessed.
Protected = 2
Public = 3

Let's do it!

Problem 3: C++ private Inheritance:

inher_pri_inher.c++
// C++ program to demonstrate the working of private inheritance

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Base {
  private:
    int pvt = 1;

  protected:
    int prot = 2;

  public:
    int pub = 3;

    // function to access private member
    int getPVT() {
      return pvt;
    }
};

class PrivateDerived : private Base {
  public:
    // function to access protected member from Base
    int getProt() {
      return prot;
    }

    // function to access private member
    int getPub() {
      return pub;
    }
};

int main() {
  PrivateDerived object1;
  cout << "Private cannot be accessed." << endl;
  cout << "Protected = " << object1.getProt() << endl;
  cout << "Public = " << object1.getPub() << endl;
  return 0;
}
output
Private cannot be accessed.
Protected = 2
Public = 3

References:⚓︎


Last update: February 26, 2023 23:39:52
Created: November 15, 2022 01:51:36

Comments